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Climate Change: A Threat To Attaining Sustainable

Development

Climate Change: A Threat To Attaining Sustainable Development


 

Global Education and Sensitisation

In recent times, there has been massive climate change awareness worldwide, however the need for continuous advocacy in communities cannot be overemphasised, hence the need for more intense education and to some extent civil disobedience. Education is needed because though naturally the climate experiences some changes, the human activities are the main cause for the sharp changes that are being recorded. Activities such as deforestation, emission of C02, untreated disposal of wastewater, etc. are worsening the negative impacts of climate change. These are activities that with proper sensitisation could be minimized. Sensitisation is a great platform to activities such as afforestation, use of clean energy, etc. that can be practiced to mitigate the negative impacts. One success story in mitigating the adverse effects of climate change was recorded in Uganda, where Young Water Professionals committed to planting one million trees in 2019 as part of the country’s efforts to reduce global warming.

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Technology and Innovation

Water resource management institutions and any other industries that heavily rely on water need to adopt a sustainable way of operations. For instance, adopting nature based solutions in protecting water bodies is a good way to reduce the climate change impact. Growing trees around water bodies does not only prevent the excessive evaporation of water but also prevents silting, eutrophication and creates a great opportunity for carbon sequestration. Innovations in climate smart agriculture like greenhouse farming will help conserve water and also prevent the leaching of nutrients into water bodies. It is also very important for the world to consider sustainable city planning putting into account the fact that there will be limited or excess rainfall at one point in time.

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Internet of Things

The Internet of Things, or ‘IoT’ for short, is about extending the power of the internet beyond computers and smartphones to a whole range of other things, processes, and environments.


 

Internet of Things (IoT) devices support the expansion of internet connection beyond the usual standard devices like computers, laptops, smartphones etc.

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These IoT devices are purely integrated with high definition technology which makes it possible for them to communicate or interact over the internet smoothly and can also be managed and controlled remotely when required.

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It basically depends on two things to transform a normal device into IoT smart device.

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They are:

  1. The device which has the capability to connect with the internet in any way.
  2. The device which is integrated with technology like sensors, functional software, some inbuilt technology which support network connections and also actuators.

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When both these functionalities are combined together an IoT device is formed. Earlier only simple watches were only used to see the time and date, but now the smart IoT watches allow a user to see heartbeat rate, calorie count, steps walked etc.

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The market for IoT devices is expanding rapidly day by day and becoming more popular as well with the drastic increase in the number of users who use them daily.

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Solar can drive down levelized cost of desalinated water

Solar can drive down levelized cost of desalinated water


 

The global average levelized cost of drinking water (LCOW) from desalination plants could decline from around €2.40/m3 in 2015 to €1.05 by 2050 if solar, storage systems and other renewable energies are used to decarbonize the sector. That is one of the key findings of the Strengthening the global water supply through a decarbonized global desalination sector and improved irrigation systems, study by the Lappeenranta University of Technology (LUT) in Finland. The report, written by professor of solar economy Christian Breyer and his team, has been published in Energy and on the Science Direct website. According to the paper, the cost of desalinated water in most regions could range from €0.32/m3 to €1.66 by 2050, including delivery expense.

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The researchers specified some regions of China, India, Australia and the U.S. could be among the areas where drinking water costs less than a euro. Solar and storage, as well as wind power, gas and thermal energy will power desalination operations, according to the LUT study. “The energy demand to transport the desalinated water from the coastline … is also accounted for in each time step,” the authors of the study stated. The report’s authors noted the energy transition is set to see the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) fall from around €180/MWh five years ago to around €50 by mid century. “In 2050, solar PV plants and battery storage [will] account for the largest share of the LCOE,” stated the report.

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In a previous study, Breyer and his team described how a renewables-based global energy system would be cleaner, cheaper and better equipped to fight climate change and would also reduce water consumption from conventional power generation by more than 95%. That report estimated solar generation requires just 2-15% of the water used by coal and nuclear power plants for each megawatt-hour produced.

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Membrane Technology

Membrane Technology


 

The newest commercial technology for desalination is based on membrane treatment. Brackish Water Reverse Osmosis (BWRO), or Sea Water Reverse Osmosis (SWRO), is the fastest growing desalination technique with the greatest number of installations around the globe; it is beginning to dominate the current and future desalination markets. Its energy consumption is usually some 70% less than for comparable evaporation technologies.

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Advancements have been made in membrane technology, resulting in stable, long-lived membrane elements. Component parts have been improved, as well, reducing maintenance and down time. Additional advancements in pretreatment have been made in recent years, further extending membrane life and improving performance. RO systems can be designed to deliver virtually any required product water quality. For these and other reasons, RO is usually the preferred method of desalination today.

 

Vortex

Mini-Hydro

Mini-Hydro


 

Most small hydropower systems are run-of-river schemes, which do not require large storage reservoirs. Power generation from run-of-river plants is free of CO2 emissions and this is one of the oldest environmentally friendly technologies. The potential of small hydropower projects in Malaysia is huge, providing a total generating capacity of about 500 MW for the long run, especially in the run-of-river types.

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Small hydropower can offer more opportunity to support rural electrification expansion and also contribute to energy and capacity support of the grid. The potential for small hydro in Malaysia is huge, but the energy available from the rivers already contributes significantly to electricity supply in rural areas.

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Small hydropower is a good alternative to conventional electricity generation, especially to provide considerable electricity in rural areas. With its hilly topography and an abundant number of streams flowing to foothills, Malaysia offers many potential sites for run-of-river small hydropower.

MMP

Solar Powered Mobile Desalination

Solar Powered Mobile Desalination


 

A fully integrated, turnkey solar solution designed to pump, filter, purify and desalinate water, as well as provide auxiliary power and communications. The system utilizes proprietary and patented technologies.

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Fully packaged and easily Transportable larger scale solution with multiple water treatment options capable of purifying up to 30,000 gallons (113,500 liters) per day from freshwater and 3,000 gallons (11,350 liters) from seawater; auxiliary AC/ DC electricity to provide critical power to electronics and small appliances.